Aechmea Fasciata Buy
Aechmea fasciata, commonly called urn plant or silver vase plant, is an epiphytic bromeliad that is native to southeastern Brazil. In its native habitat, it will grow in the ground or in trees without taking any nourishment from the tree. This is a stemless plant that typically grows 1-3' tall in a basal rosette of stiff, arching, broad, strap-shaped, elliptic-oval, silvery-green leaves which resemble an urn. Leaf margins have black spines. An urn plant shoot blooms only once and then dies. But the bloom is spectacular. Inflorescence is a dense pyramidal head consisting of small violet flowers (mature to red) which are surrounded by showy pink bracts. Bracts remain showy for several months. Offsets (pups) form at the base of this shoot (mother plant). Offsets can be transplanted as new plants after the original plant dies (wait until they reach 6" tall to transplant). Many cultivars, some featuring variegated leaves, have been developed.Genus name comes from the Greek word aichme meaning a point in reference to the stiff points on the sepals.Specific epithet means bound together.
aechmea fasciata buy
Aechmea fasciata is a species of flowering plant in the Bromeliaceae family. It is commonly called the silver vase or urn plant and is native to Brazil. This plant is probably the best known species in this genus, and it is often grown as a houseplant in temperate areas.
Aechmea fasciata requires partial shade and a well-drained, but moisture-retentive soil. It can also be grown epiphytically, as, for example, with moss around its roots and wired to rough bark. Root rot can be a problem if the soil is too moist. If potted, the soil should contain ample acidic organic matter. The rosette formed by the leaves should be kept filled with water. Propagation is from side shoots that naturally develop around the base of the main rosette.
Aechmea fasciata is listed in the FDA Poisonous Plant Database under the section for "Skin irritating substances in plants" and is known to cause contact dermititis, phytophoto dermatitis, and contact allergy.
Native to southeastern Brazil, Aechmea fasciata (Urn Plant) is a tender evergreen perennial boasting a pretty rosette of broad, strap-shaped, cross-striped silver and green leaves. Thick, the leaves arch away to create a vase or urn shape, hence the common name. In mature plants (3 years old), one huge, pure pink flower spike emerges from that vase, consisting of small purple flowers surrounded by showy bright pink bracts. Their outstanding floral display lasts for several months. Urn Plant blooms only once and then dies. However, it produces offsets (pups) at the base of the plant after flowering. The offsets can be transplanted when they are at least 6 in. tall (15 cm) and planted in fresh, barely moist potting mix. In their native Brazil, Urn Plants grow in the ground or in trees. Fortunately, they thrive in almost any indoor environment with little care.
The publishing of the genome of the famous fruit crop A. comosus var. comosus and A. comosus var. bracteatus provides the possibility to study the genomic basis of divergence between A. fasciata and A. comosus and the rise of tank epiphytic habits22,23. Here, we report the sequencing of A. fasciata. Ancestral genome construction and comparative genome analysis show the evolution of chromosome numbers and the loss of orthologous sets. In A. fasciata, the gibberellin receptor gene GID1C-like was duplicated; along with the insertion of 14 and 27 amino acids and multiple nonsynonymous mutations in the duplicated gene pairs relative to AcGID1C-like due to a segmental duplication event followed by mutation, it may affect GA signalling and promote rosette expansion, which allow water-impounding tank formation. Through analysis of the evolution of the FT family, coupling ChIP-seq, ChIP-qPCR and Y1H, we hypothesized that AfEIL1 can directly bind upstream of AfFTL2 proteins and that AfFTL2 may be the key gene of ethylene-induced flowering. The resulting genomic information will be helpful for studying the evolution and mechanisms of flowering time regulation in bromeliads.
a LTR insertion time estimation. b Ks distribution of Afa, Acc and Acb. c Ks distribution of Afa-Acc, Afa-Acb and Acb-Acc. d Bar plots of Afa, Acc and Acb with respect to the ancient genome. e Dot plot of the Afa and ancestral genomes. Afa: A. fasciata; Acc: A. comosus var. comosus; and Acb: A. comosus var. bracteatus.
We identified 15,252 gene families (orthologue gene set) in A. fasciata, 15,999 in A. comosus var. comosus and 14,011 in A. comosus var. bracteatus, including 18,138, 20,235 and 20,699 genes, respectively. They shared 11,996 gene families, with 627, 1383 and 2618 gene families lost in A. comosus var. comosus, A. comosus var. bracteatus, and A. fasciata, respectively (Fig. 3b); of the gene families, 99.21%, 98.97% and 99.36% had gene family sizes less than 5 (Fig. 3c). There were 8,092 single copy genes in the three genomes. Compared with those of A. comosus var. comosus and A. comosus var. bracteatus, the number of gene families of size more than 1 was decreased significantly in A. fasciata. Using DupGeneFinder29, we predicted the duplicated gene pairs of the genome. As shown in Fig. 3a, A. fasciata harboured more duplicate gene pairs than A. comosus var. comosus and A. comosus var. bracteatus, with 3,112, 1,069, 914, 6757 and 23,537 whole genome duplication (WGD), tandem (TD), proximal (PD), transposed (TRD) and dispersed (DSD) gene pairs and 3062, 1072, 489, 2506 and 13,892 such pairs in A. comosus var. comosus, respectively.
a Duplicate gene pair distribution. b Venn plot of gene families. c Distribution of gene family size. d The tank-habit A. fasciata and tank-less pineapple and red pineapple. e Estimation of divergence time and gene family expansion and contraction. f significantly expanded or contracted gene families.
The transcription factor families RICESLEEPER2-like and terpene synthase 10 (TPS10)-like were expanded in A. fasciata (Supplementary Fig. 6 and Supplementary Fig. 7). RICESLEEPER2 is essential for normal plant growth and development34. There were 8 RICESLEEPER2-like loci in the ancient genome of A. fasciata. Compared with A. comosus and A. comosus var. bracteatus, two clades of Ricesleeper2-like were expanded in A. fasciata due to the dispersed duplication event after speciation with A. comosus var. comosus. TPS10 is involved in defence against oomycete infection and indirect defence against herbivores by producing mixed signalling to attract natural enemies to plants35,36. The TPS10-like gene clusters contained 5, 7 and 12 genes in A. comosus var. comosus, A. comosus var. bracteatus and A. fasciata, respectively. One of the loci, a homologue of rna23024 of A. comosus var. comosus, was expanded to form a cluster with 9 genes.
a Microsynteny block containing the duplicated GID1-likes among A. fasciata (Af), A. comosus var. comosus (Acc) and A. comosus var. bracteatus (Acb). b Portion of the multiple alignment of GID1C-like proteins; Os, Oryza sativa subsp. Japonica; Ms, Musa acuminata subsp. malaccensis; Acb, A. comosus var. bracteatus; Acc, A. comosus var. comosus; Af, A. fasciata. c The distribution and synteny of DELLA and DGLLA-like proteins between A. fasciata (Af) and A. comosus var. comosus (Acc). d The domain and polygenetic tree of A. fasciata (Af) and A. comosus var. comosus (Acc) DELLA and DGLLA-like proteins.
The A. fasciata homologues of five main flowering pathway genes in Arabidopsis and rice were identified by protein alignment. The flowering pathway genes were conserved in bromeliads relative to rice (Fig. 6a). The age pathway genes AfmiR156, AfmiR172, AfTOE1 and AfSPL14 were identified to be involved in A. fasciata flowering time44,45. However, in contrast to Arabidopsis and rice, there was an EIL1-dependent pathway to induce FTL2 expression and then downstream signalling genes. In addition, ethylene signalling also induced the expression of homologues of genes involved in plant development, including CAL-A, ERF3, ETR3, EXPA10, LEA5, NAKR3, and LSH6, which shared similar expression with AfFTL2 and synchronized flowering (Fig. 6b). LSH6 plays a critical role in synchronizing flowering46. NakR3 may play a role in the transport of FT proteins47. CAL-A functions as a floral meristem identity gene48. ETR3, ERF03, OTU6, and EXPA10 play roles in plant growth and varied developmental processes15,49,50.
With the formation of tank habits, bromeliads invaded the treetops of rainforests. Especially in Atlantic forests of Brazil, they presented with extraordinary biodiversity. The tank habit allows bromeliads to impound and absorb water and nutrients through their leaves, not requiring the uptake of water and nutrients by roots, leading to their degeneration into anchorage. Leaves of most bromeliads are organized in stemless rosettes that allow the development of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems55,56. The duplication of GID1C-like genes and contraction of DELLA-like genes in A. fasciata may promote rosette expansion by affecting GA signalling, which allowed the rosettes to overlap closely and impound water. GA is a hormone that regulates various developmental processes, such as stem elongation, leaf expansion, flowering, seed germination and pollen development57,58,59. The effect of GA on controlling leaf expansion has been studied widely60,61,62,63,64. In the classical GA signalling pathway, GA regulates the gene expression of various pathways by interacting with the receptor GID1 and destabilizing the DELLA protein, which are master regulators of the GA signalling pathway37,65. DELLA proteins have conserved eponymous DELLA motifs, followed by LEQLE, TVHYNP and MAMGM motifs in the N-terminus40. The GRAS domain is in the C-terminus and connects to these motifs by a poly S/T/V motif, which consists of five subdomains, including LHRI, LHRII, VHIID, PFYRE and SAW66. All the motifs and subdomains, except LHRI, were associated with the affinity of DELLA to GA preceptor GID140. The motifs in the N-terminus function in the transactivation of plant growth regulators;67 the motifs in the C-terminus are essential for the formation of the transactivation complex and sequestration of DELLA-interacting proteins; specifically, the SAW motif plays a key role in the suppressive activity of DELLA68,69. DELLA functions as a master regulator in the trade-off between plant growth and various adverse environmental conditions. AfSLR1-like and AcSLR1-like proteins have unique LEQLD, MAMAMG and VVHYNP motifs in the N-terminus and AAAAEVEEEGEEAAEE insertions in the GRAS domain, which are different from previously reported conserved motifs in DELLA proteins, suggesting that AfSLR1-like and AfSLR1-like may regulate different growth suppressors and DELLA-interacting proteins and play a pivotal role during adaptation to specific environments in bromeliads. In A. comosus var. comosus and A. fasciata, there were 5 and 2 DGLLA genes, respectively, which were DELLA-related proteins with DGLLA motifs instead of DELLA motifs69. DGLLA homologues function as back-up GA-insensitive negative regulators of plant growth under specific conditions70. The contraction of DGLLA homologues may promote the plant growth in A. fasciata. In conclusion, the duplication of GID1-like genes and contraction of DGLLA-like genes may play key roles in the formation of tank habits. Transposase-like genes of the HAT (hobo, activator, Tam3) family are essential for plant growth in rice and Arabidopsis71. Ricesleeper-overexpressing Arabidopsis plants showed delayed inflorescence development, increased rosette leaf number and irregularity, dwarfism and fasciation. Ricesleeper-overexpressing rice plants were also dwarfed34. Compared with A. comosus var. comosus and A. comosus var. bracteatus, A. fasciata contained 8 original Ricesleeper2 loci, 2 of which had expanded. The expansion of ricesleeper2-like may also be associated with tank epiphytic habit formation in A. fasciata. In addition, Key innovations could significantly decrease the extinction rate by improving the dispersion ability, helping the plants to invade new regions or increasing defences against herbivores9. TPS10 is involved in the indirect defence against lepidopteran larvae by producing a mixture that attracts natural enemies to plants being fed upon35. TPS10 is also induced by oomycete infection in Medicago truncatula36. The expansion of AfTPS10-like gene clusters improved the defence against herbivores and pathogens and may play a critical role in adaptation to environments. Tank-less bromeliads often inhabit semiarid or arid regions, where they lie at the limit of physiological tolerance, and most other plants fail to survive. The expansion of AcMAIL3-like may play a key role in the development of pineapple roots. The expansion of ZIP10-like may help pineapple adapt to infertile environments. 041b061a72